Folau has been cited for a tackle in the air against Ireland, but it’s not the contest for which he was sent to the sin bin.Folau was yellow-carded in the 31st minute over a contest with Ireland skipper Peter O’Mahony, where the latter fell awkwardly and was stretchered off, but it was a kick-off contest earlier that caught the citing commissioner’s eyes.In both instances, O’Mahony was lifted by teammate CJ Stander, leaving him in a precarious place in the air, an issue Haylett-Petty suggested was more dangerous than any contact in the air.”Being a player that’s often in the air, you want to be protecting the players but I felt like last night that one-man lift, they’re obviously putting their own player in danger there,” he said.”Any time there was any sort of contact in the air, he fell pretty badly. So, I feel like if anything we should be getting rid of that.”Aerial contests have become a grey area under a World Rugby crackdown on player safety and it’s an area that the Wallabies are vulnerable to be targeted in, with the weapon of Folau in the air used so often.”I think obviously that’s a huge strength for us and they’re going to try and take that away from us,” Haylett-Petty said.”I feel like the fans probably want to see 15 on 15 and a good battle and it was, it was a great Test series and obviously we don’t want to make any excuses.”The Irish were really good and it could’ve gone either way in both those last two Test matches.”The Wallabies and Waratahs star was cited over the incident in the ninth minute, after ‘placing his left hand on O’Mahony’s chest’ in the aerial battle.“This action pulls O’Mahony over and he topples to the ground,’ citing commissioner Michael O’Leary said.Folau’s actions were described as ‘strikingly similar’ to the contest for which he was yellow-carded.Because he was carded during the match as well, Folau will have to front a disciplinary hearing later this week, with his availability for the Waratahs’ crunch game against the Rebels under question.Any possible suspension would be a major headache for the Waratahs, with Michael Hooper also set to miss the match with a hamstring strain.Folau’s aerial battles weren’t the only speaking point after the game, with a controversial penalty going against hooker Tolu Latu, who put in his best international performance.Latu was over the ball but was penalised for not releasing, despite a replay showing that he wasn’t the tackler.It was an incident he admitted was frustrating, but didn’t decide the game.”Looking back on it, I thought that I had all rights to the ball, so some calls you get and some calls you don’t,” he said.”So, it’s pretty frustrating to be honest, but just got to move on and try and move on from that and get things rolling again.”The Wallabies lost the third June Test in Sydney on Saturday night, 20-16, with Ireland taking the series 2-1 overall.
Dear Editor,On Saturday, February 3, 2018, Stabroek News’ top story was: “Surinamese investor pulls gaming machines from delayed Sleep-In casino – gives two-month deadline for positive word on licence”.The action by the Surinamese investor is a good lesson for us all: take no BS! Extracts from the poem by Martin Niemöller, commenting on the cowardice of German intellectuals following the Nazis’ rise to power, are insightful:First, they came for the Socialists, and I did not speak out—Because I was not a Socialist.Then they came for the Trade Unionists, and I did not speak out—Because I was not a Trade Unionist.Then they came for the Jews, and I did not speak out—Because I was not a Jew.Then they came for me—and there was no one left to speak for me.Then they came for the sugar workers — and there is an oppressive political, economic and racial nexus between the loathsome treatment of Sleep-In International Hotel and Casino (Sleep-In) application and the sugar workers.The truth is: there was no earthly reason to deny, delay, or retard the casino application process; and, in addition, reportedly threaten and undermine the application process by requesting that Sleep-In revoke and replace the auditor. I am that auditor.Sleep-In seemingly acquiesced to the Gaming Authority. It was the passivity that the rubber-stamping Gaming Authority Board sought to continue their vendetta against Sleep-In and the group that Sleep-In is perceived to favour and support. Also, my role as Auditor became persona non-grata for the Gaming Authority after I expressed my concerns about the inexplicable behaviour of the Guyana Gaming Authority.Auditors more eminent then I have found no anomaly in the audited financial statements; and now we are in the dead zone, with the Gaming Authority stalling, stymying, or failing to make a decision after having been provided, in April 2017, with a new and all-inclusive casino licence application.Subsequently, individual tax returns of the directors and supporting documentation for source of funds were provided to the Gaming Authority upon their request. The tide has now receded, and to paraphrase Warren Buffet, we can see the nakedness of the Gaming Authority Board members and their handlers. I apologize to the readers for illustrating these likely unfit and improper images without warning.Maybe we should have asked for multiple years of individual tax returns of Darren Woods, CEO & Chairman of ExxonMobil, and the other ExxonMobil Directors. Can’t have that, these are foreigners from an extremely “reputable” company.The dissimulation of the Gaming Authority is evidenced in a most visual manner by the repossession of some of the gaming machines from Sleep-In by one of the investors. What a tragedy for local business entrepreneurs.Now what are the options for the self-described independent and objective Gaming Authority? After having received a comprehensive application that complied with the requirements of the Gambling Prevention Act and the other statutes the Gaming Authority claims relevancy under. Options: (1) Issue the licences; (2) adhere to the preceding option.However, we are not dealing with an independent or objective Gaming Authority, and thus there is only one directive they will execute: Do not issue the licence to an entity that is perceived to be controlled by the PPP.As Walter Rodney noted in his book, The Grounding with my Brothers: “Why not struggle for multi-racial and harmonious living, which nobody on a theoretical level would oppose. This is what we are struggling for.”Sincerely,Nigel Hinds
Region 10 (Upper Demerara/Berbice) will be the first to have fully operationalised passport application services as the government moves to decentralise such services.This announcement had first been made on July 15 by Minister of Citizenship Winston Felix, at the occasion of the ‘Meet the Public’Minister of Citizenship Winston Felix along with Assistant National Director, Community Development Councils, Sandra Adams of Linden, examine the office within the National Insurance Scheme building where the passport services will be conductedInitiative in Linden.On Thursday last the Minister visited Linden to participate in sensitisation activities in preparation for the Tuesday, August 16 launch on those services in Linden at the National Insurance Scheme (NIS) building. He also met with staff at the NIS when he visited the intended location.“This initiative has its genesis in His Excellency’s [President David Granger] concept of providing government services in the towns. It is his view that government services should be delivered in the townships created, thereby avoiding unnecessary travel to Georgetown to conduct simple business with a government agency. It is in this regard that the Department of Citizenship has taken the initiative a stage further,” Felix said.He explained that persons applying for the renewal of passports or the replacement of lost, damaged or filled passports will be able to make their applications weekly; on Tuesdays and Wednesdays and will be able to uplift their passports the following Thursday. Persons applying for passports for the first time, however, will still be required to visit the Immigration Office in Georgetown due to the machinery required to generate first time machine-readable passports.The minister said that since the current location in Linden is a temporary one, the move to have first time passport applicants acquire this service would not be possible until the ministry can acquire permanent premises. He added that efforts are being made to acquire a permanent location.Minister Felix said that as the roll out of these services continues across the country, the ministry is also working with the E-Government Agency to provide other services such as the online passport applications and online visa applications. This, however, will take some time due to the need for capacity development with regard to connectivity in far outlying areas.Following the implementation in Region 10, the decentralising of passport application services will expanded to other areas including: Mabaruma in the Waini, Region One (Barima-Waini); Anna Regina, Region Two (Pomeroon-Supenaam); New Amsterdam and Corriverton, Region Six (East Berbice-Corentyne); Bartica, Region Seven (Cuyuni-Mazaruni); Mahdia Region Eight (Potaro-Siparuni) and Lethem, Region Nine (Upper Takatu-Upper Essequibo).
The Guinean government through its Embassy near Monrovia has provided what it translated as the latest information on the rising death toll from the Ebola virus that recently broke out in that West African state.Guinea Ambassador to Liberia, Elhaji Abdoulaye Doré, made the disclosure at a press conference on Friday when he spoke on “matters relating to the Ebola epidemic fever currently being battled by the regional health authorities.”According to Ambassador Doré, since the outbreak of the deadly disease a few weeks ago, with the virus having subsequently spread to Liberia, the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, (MOH/SW) in collaboration with its international partners such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and Médecins Sans Frontieres in the two countries have taken the contagion seriously.As to the number of deaths, the Guinean diplomat disclosed that up to Friday, April 4, 134 cases were reported in Guinea, and of those cases, 84 deaths were related to the Ebola fever. Four new suspected cases were notified in the forest region, three in Macenta against two reported in the Guéckédou near the Liberian border, close to Lofa County and to Conakry.He said four other cases were completely treated and the patients discharged on Thursday, April 3 from two hospitals in Conakry (Ratoma and Donka Hospitals.)Reading from statistics collected from Guinea, Ambassador Doré said that out of the 80 cases in Guéckédou, 58 deaths were recorded; in Macenta 26 cases, 14 deaths; in Kissidougou nine cases, five deaths; Conakry 15 cases, four deaths; Dabola three new cases, two deaths; and one case in Dinguiraye, from which one person died.For their combined efforts, the Guinean diplomat expressed gratitude to the respective leadership of those organizations, on behalf of his government.“In the interest of our people and countries, the best thing to do for now is to educate the general public about the danger of the disease. Having acknowledged that this is the most important aspect, we believe that prevention is the best approach to dealing with the epidemic,” the Guinean envoy opined.He said, since the outbreak of the disease, the Guinean government, through its Embassy near Monrovia, has been in regular consultations with her counterpart in Liberia, to acquire the most reliable updates on the situation.“We do not only call the Minister of Health in Liberia for updates on the situation in our country, but we also transmit to him documents received from Conakry as it relates to measures and evaluations on the current situations since the disease outbreak…where the situation has spread to, since its outbreak to date.”Ambassador Doré has meanwhile, disclosed that one special health center with a laboratory facility is being currently installed in Guéckédou where Liberians, Sierra Leoneans as well as Guineans are examined and treated for the “Ebola virus.” To further augment the strength of medical practitioners in Guinea to contain the spread of the virus, 27 medic specialists from across the world are being assigned to various regions in Guinea.The Ambassador expressed gratitude to the Liberian authorities for the “enthusiastic solidarity being put in place during the outbreak of the disease.”According to him, efforts by the Liberian authorities were clear evidence that Guinea and Liberia constitute one unified people, “because we share the same history, the same geography, and therefore, our people live together under the banners of the Mano River Union. We are therefore not surprised at the solidarity by Liberians because it is in times of trouble that one comes to know true friends. As such, prevention just might be the first major step to curing this pandemic.”Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
Roberto Martinez has defended his Everton reign – and insisted he is closer than ever to bringing success to the Merseyside club.The Spaniard has come under-fire from supporters following a season of under-achievement.The Toffees are currently sitting 11th in the Premier League table having failed to win any of their last seven games and suffered a disheartening loss to Manchester United in their FA Cup semi-final last Saturday.Calls for Martinez to be sacked have grown ever-louder in recent weeks and significant protests are apparently planned for Saturday’s home game against Bournemouth.But the 42-year-old, who has been in charge since June 2013, is determined to win over his critics and has urged fans to judge him over his entire tenure, not the past three months.“Scrutiny I welcome and accept. I understand it completely,” he said.“I always encourage huge expectations and as a football club we have to drive to challenge for silverware and challenge for the top four. When we’re not, scrutiny needs to be there.“But it shouldn’t be scrutiny of the last two months or three months. It should be of three seasons, scrutiny about the team we’ve put together.“The first season we had a record points tally, last season we were the last team in the British game to be knocked out of Europe, this season we made two semi-finals.“I’m ready to fight more than ever and closer, probably, to finding a way to challenge for silverware.”There is a sense that sections of the club’s support are past the point of no return in terms of backing the former Wigan boss, but he has not given up on reconciliation.“The message is we are all in this together,” he said.“It’s only when you get through these difficult experiences and painful moments that you get renewed drive.“I understand their passion. They make us the football club we are, football without passion makes no sense.” 1 Everton manager Roberto Martinez
PICO RIVERA – In a special meeting Tuesday, the Pico Rivera City Council voted to support Montebello’s decision to install a temporary bridge to replace the fire-damaged Beverly Boulevard bridge, despite an additional $74,000 over the original $1,039,000 cost estimated for each city to replace the bridge. Los Angeles County’s Department of Public Works is administering the rebuilding project for the bridge’s co-owners, Montebello and Pico Rivera, which is estimated to cost a total of $10.7 million. With the temporary bridge estimated to cost $732,000, the Pico Rivera council agreed to the move under the condition that federal funds are approved for 80 percent of the temporary structure. Each city will pay an extra $74,000 to cover the remaining 20 percent – a cost the Montebello council already voted to pay at a special meeting last week. AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREBlues bury Kings early with four first-period goals “The county wants a resolution from Pico Rivera,” said Michael Moore, director of public works for the city of Pico Rivera. “We just want confirmation that the bridge will be reimbursed by Caltrans.” Dave Pilker, head of the city services programs for Los Angeles County’s Department of Public Works, assured the council that Caltrans had agreed to consider the temporary bridge as part of the original construction plan and therefore covered under the federal grant already approved. He said the county was only waiting for written confirmation. Fear of contamination from the fire to the spreading ground area of the channel, where water is filtered for drinking, prompted county officials to order the city to remove 60 truckloads of soil following tests for lead, raising the cleanup costs by $150,000 to $200,000, said Moore. If lead levels are low enough, the soil can be dumped locally. If not, it must be transported to a landfill in Arizona. Some councilmembers expressed reservations about cleanup costs as well as potential unknown expenses, such as the dismantling and wear of the temporary bridge. “First it was going to cost $225,000 for cleanup. Now it’s going to cost an additional $150,000,” said Councilman Gregory Salcido. “Can any of that be shared by both cities?” Pilker said Montebello officials had not been approached about the waste removal costs, but that the county was still trying to find out how much of the cleanup costs can be covered under the federal funds. A recent joint council meeting between the two cities had become heated when Pico Rivera officials resisted Montebello Mayor Bill Molinari’s push for a temporary bridge solution before all of the information was in – particularly the reimbursable costs. But despite reservations, the city voted unanimously for the resolution. The temporary solution helps return traffic flow to Beverly Boulevard while allowing construction of a completely new permanent bridge to continue. It will be placed along the north side of the existing bridge to span the burned-out section, providing one lane of traffic in each direction. Meanwhile, the south lane of the new permanent bridge will be constructed alongside. Plans to replace the bridge had been under way for several years and by coincidence, money from federal highway funds had been approved for a complete replacement of the bridge on the same day as the fire. firstname.lastname@example.org (562) 698-0955, Ext. 3029160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!
Newman and her teammates travel to Auburn, Ala., for the Plainsman Invitational hosted by Auburn. The Bulldogs start the three-day tournament Feb. 15 against Texas Tech and Furman with first pitches scheduled for 10 a.m. and 12:30 p.m., respectively. Print Friendly Version Newman was outstanding in the circle on opening weekend helping Drake go 4-1. Newman, the 2018 MVC Pitcher of the Year, went 2-0 with a 0.63 earned run average and one save with 28 strikeouts to just three walks in 14.1 innings of work. In the season opening win over Toledo, she took a perfect game into the fifth inning before walking a Rocket. She exited after the inning after five scoreless innings with 12 strikeouts and one walk. The next day in a rematch win over Toledo, Newman pitched in relief and earned the save with one inning of work, and at the plate she blasted a three-run go-ahead home run in the sixth inning to complete a huge comeback for the Bulldogs. In the team’s final game of the weekend, a win over SEMO, Newman pitched a complete game with 13 strikeouts and allowed just one run on four hits with just one walk. ST. LOUIS – Redshirt senior Nicole Newman (Madison, Wis.) of the Drake University softball team is the first Missouri Valley Conference Pitcher of the Week of the 2019 season, the MVC office announced Monday, Feb. 11.
South Fork 38 St. Bernard’s 71Jasa Sisemore had 19 points including 14 points in the first quarter, Maddie Costa added 14 more and the St. Bernard’s girl’s basketball team shuttered the vising South Fork Cubs 71-28 Thursday night at St. Bernard’s High.The win serves as the Crusaders’ (5-0, 17-4) 12th in a row and moves the squad to a perfect 5-0 in Little 4 Conference play. The Crusaders can clinch an outright Little 4 championship when they face Hoopa Valley on Jan. 31.McKinleyville 45 …
What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … 2) Reading List Improvements: To keep track of your reading list, the new app introduces a “Currently Reading” section where your list of “to-read” articles are tracked. It even remembers your position in every article you’re reading! When you finish an article, it’s moved to the newly created archive (the “Recently Read” section). 3) More Sharing, Rotation Lock (Pro Users Only): For users of the Pro (paid) version, you’ll now be able to share articles to other iPhone Twitter applications like Twitterlator, TwitterFon, and Tweetie. Also added is Evernote, which complements the current list of sharing methods that already included Facebook, Delicious, and email. Another new feature for Pro users is the ability to lock the rotation of the phone so that it stays put in the viewing mode you want (portrait or landscape) – a feature we wish the iPhone itself would include, to be honest! The Read It Later API As developer Nate Weiner explains on his blog, “as a solo developer, it’s just not possible for me to develop for every mobile device and browser.” That’s why he decided to open up his API so others could build apps that do everything his does including tagging, syncing, account management, and more. Hopefully, this new openness will encourage other developers to step in and help build applications for Palm, Android, Blackberry, and Chrome or implement the good features he hears suggested to him on a regular basis. There’s a good chance that developers will jump on this opportunity – and not just because Read It Later already has a user base of 1 million that grows by 5000 new users per day – that’s just one incentive. The other is that API is open for both free and commercial applications, meaning the first (or best) apps developed for new platforms can actually earn money for their creators, just as Read It Later has done for Nate on the iPhone.To access the API, sign up for an API key here. For the new iPhone applications, you can download Read It Later Free here or Pro here ($2.99). Related Posts Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement sarah perez Tags:#mobile#Product Reviews#web Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces Read It Later, a cross-platform browser extension for saving online articles for later reading, has just debuted their newly updated iPhone application. This latest version introduces a number of useful features for voracious mobile readers including support for articles spanning multiple pages, support for sites requiring logins (like WSJ or NYT), new sharing features, and a lot more. But the bigger news from this company is the release of an API that will allow anyone to build their own Read It Later applications – and not just for mobile, but for any platform.The New Read It Later for iPhoneThe Read It Later application on the iPhone, available in both a free and paid version, lets you mark articles you’re reading in Safari using a customized bookmarklet. Originally, the installation of this bookmarklet was a bit of a challenge as you first have to save a link then edit it, but thanks to iPhone OS 3.0’s introduction of copy-and-paste, the process is much simpler. With the update to Read It Later version 1.3, iPhone users will have access to a number of new features. Although each one is a minor tweak or upgrade, when combined, the overall experience of using the application is greatly improved.1) Better Access to Articles: The first of the many changes includes support for multi-page articles. These articles will be detected by the application and combined into offline web and text modes. Also supported are articles that sit behind a paywall or are password-protected in some way – such as those on the Wall Street Journal’s site, for example. Now Read It Later can store that content by caching your login credentials so you don’t have to enter them again when the app needs to download that content. And while you’re reading these saved articles, a new scroll bar makes it easier to navigate. The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technology
I like to tell people I’m a recovering academic. The truth is, though, that I haven’t left physics behind. That would be impossible since I’ve been making a career in the world of building science. So today I’m going to delve into that subset of building science called building physics as we take a look at the physics of water in porous materials. You’ll also learn about the fourth state of water, the one that’s not liquid, not solid, and not vapor.But fear not! I’m going to do all this with a lot of images, and I won’t include a single equation (although there’s a link to one if you’re brave enough to look).The polar nature of the water moleculeLet’s begin with the water molecule. One oxygen, two hydrogens, bonded together covalently. That means each hydrogen shares its one electron with the oxygen atom and both atoms get to complete their outer shells by doing so.[Image credit: Wikimedia Commons]As it turns out, the oxygen atom pulls on that shared electron from each hydrogen atom more strongly than the hydrogens do, so the oxygen side of the molecule is slightly negative. The hydrogen ends are thus slightly positive. Because the water molecule is bent (as opposed to linear, with the hydrogens on opposite sides of the oxygen), the molecule is polar. It has a negative end and a positive end. The positive charge is concentrated in two areas near the hydrogen atoms, as you can see in the illustration at left.[Image credit: Wikimedia Commons]When you put a bunch of water molecules together, the polarity of the individual molecules causes them to attract each other. Like charges repel and unlike charges attract. As you see above, each water molecule can form weak bonds, called hydrogen bonds, with four other water molecules.One consequence of water’s polarity is that it is a liquid at higher temperatures than similar molecules. Carbon dioxide, for example, is a linear, nonpolar molecule and becomes a gas at about -71° F (-57° C). If water were like carbon dioxide, the oceans would not be here. Mountains would have no snow. And I wouldn’t be writing this because we humans would not exist, at least not in the form we have now.The polarity of water molecules means that when you put it in contact with another material, what happens depends on which attraction is stronger: water for itself or water for the other material. When the water is more strongly attracted to itself, as you see on the left side of the diagram at left, we call the other material hydrophobic, or water fearing. When the water is more strongly attracted to the other material than to itself, we say that material is hydrophilic, or water-loving.When the source is liquid waterNow it’s time to recall the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Water moves from wet to dry areas.[Image credit: Stone Initiatives & Materials Testing Group]If a porous material has one end sitting in water, the pores, or capillaries, will begin filling with water. The movement of water through capillaries depends on how hydrophilic, or wettable, a surface is and on how small the capillary is. The smaller the capillary, the higher the water can rise in it, as you see in the illustration at left.The photo at the top of the article illustrates perfectly how water can move from the ground into the porous concrete and concrete block. It’s not uncommon for moisture problems in attics to originate with a wet foundation.The photo of bricks below shows the capillary rise of water over time. After a bit more than an hour, the water is three-quarters of the way up the brick.[Image credit: Wikimedia Commons]How high can the water rise? I said at the beginning I was going to do this article without equations, so I’ll just tell you that there is one you can use to calculate the height a column of water can rise in a capillary. It depends directly on how wettable the surface is and inversely on the radius of the capillary, the density of the water, and the acceleration due to gravity. (If you want to see the equation, go to the Wikipedia page on capillary action and look for the section titled Height of a meniscus.)Since trees move moisture from the ground to the leaves using capillary action, the photo below might give you an idea of how high water can rise.[Image credit: Energy Vanguard](If you look closely, you might see me standing at the base of the tree. And if you do see me there, I’ll congratulate you on your imagination.)When the source is water vaporLiquid is easy. Things start getting fun when we take a look at what happens when water vapor interacts with porous materials. If you have such a material (drywall, wood, concrete, cellulose…) with humid air on one side, water vapor will find its way into the pores. If the material is hydrophilic, water vapor will start sticking to it.And then we start using a new word. When the surface pulls water out of the air like this, we call it hygroscopic. The material is hygroscopic, and we also say that it has hygroscopic water on the surface.[Image credit: Building Science Corporation]Another word you need to know here is “adsorbed.” Those monolayers of water that stick to the surface are the fourth state of water. Here’s why.When that first monolayer of water molecules begins sticking to the surface, it does so with gusto. Remember, we’re talking about hygroscopic materials that can pull water vapor from the surrounding space. They really like each other!The second monolayer is also attracted strongly…but not as strongly as the first monolayer. Since the second monolayer is attracted to the surface through the monolayer of water that’s already there, the attraction is muted a bit. Likewise with the third, fourth, and fifth monolayers.[Image credit: Building Science Corporation (with modification by Energy Vanguard)]The diagram at left gives you a picture of that weakening attraction. The first monolayer is complete when the relative humidity rises to 10%. The relative humidity then has to rise to 50% before the second monolayer is complete. As the relative humidity keeps rising, the monolayers keep increasing and hit five by the time you get to 100%.That attraction can be put in terms of energy. Recall that the energy absorbed or emitted when water boils or condenses is called the latent heat of vaporization. When water vapor adsorbs onto a surface (or breaks free of that adsorption), there’s a latent heat of adsorption involved. According to Professor Chris Timusk, the heat of adsorption for the first monolayer is 3700 kJ/kg. For the second, it’s 2972 kJ/kg. At the fifth monolayer, the heat of adsorption is 2500 kJ/kg, which is equal to the heat of vaporization for liquid water.What that means is that the adsorbed water really is different from the other three states. It’s obviously not vapor. It’s not ice either. It’s most similar to liquid water, but it’s not as free to move as liquid because it’s bound more strongly to the surface than it is to the surrounding water molecules. Only when you get more than five monolayers do you see it beginning to act like liquid water.The three transport modesNow we’re ready to talk about how water moves through porous materials. The three transport modes are:Vapor diffusionSurface diffusionCapillary flowVapor diffusion carries water vapor through the material in the vapor state. It doesn’t stick to any of the surfaces it encounters. It just floats on through in the empty space of the pores. Not much water gets through like that.Surface diffusion moves more water than vapor diffusion. This happens because of that attraction I discussed earlier. Since the first monolayer is attracted the most strongly, it’s energetically favorable for a molecule in the second monolayer to move down to the first layer if it can, as shown below.[Image credit: Building Science Corporation (with modification by Energy Vanguard)]Likewise, molecules from the third monolayer want to move down to the second, the fourth to the third, and so on. In that fashion, water can move through a porous material via surface diffusion.But things really open up when the capillaries start filling up. Once a pore is completely full, water can move more rapidly through the porous material. That’s capillary flow.Sorption isothermsNow we can put all this together and understand what’s going on in these geeky things called sorption isotherms. The graph below, taken from Professor Timusk’s doctoral thesis, is a good example.[Image credit: Professor Chris Timusk]First, let me point out that there are three curves here: two for different densities of wood and one for clay brick. Each one shows the moisture content in the material as a function of the relative humidity of the surrounding air.Notice that each curve exhibits the same pattern: a rapid rise, a flattening out, and then another rapid rise. Recalling the explanations above for adsorption and the three types of moisture transport, what do you think is happening in those regions? See if you can figure it out before going on to the next paragraph.[Image credit: Graham van der Wielen on Flickr.com]To distract your cheating eyes from “accidentally” reading the answer first, I’ll let you look at this picture of aliens drinking beer. Now think!Well, first off, the curves show surface diffusion and capillary flow. We know capillary flow starts at higher relative humidities, so the initial rise and the flattened out part are where surface diffusion is happening. But why does the initial rise flatten out so quickly?Recall that the first monolayer feels the strongest attraction for the surface. It gets filled at about 10% relative humidity. The flat part of the curve is mostly filling the second monolayer plus a bit more in wood and significantly more in brick.When the curves shoot up again, capillary flow has kicked in (see graph below). Now the moisture content can increase rapidly with increasing relative humidity. And here’s where we can see something really interesting about the difference between materials.[Image credit: Professor Chris Timusk]Notice that capillary flow doesn’t start in the brick until the relative humidity is much higher than in the two types of wood. Hmmm. What could cause the capillaries not to fill up at lower relative humidity like it does in wood? Why of course. It’s because they’re bigger!Another important thing to know about sorption isotherms is that the curves you see above are for a specific temperature. As you raise or lower the temperature, the curves shift. Why? Because the amount of moisture a material can hold at a give relative humidity depends on how warm or cool it is.Warmer materials cannot hold as much moisture because there’s enough heat there to dry them out. Cooler materials hold more moisture. In fact, Bill Rose calls this the Fundamental Rule of Material Wetness: Warm materials tend to be dryer and cool materials tend to be wetter.And now you can look at sorption isotherms and understand what they’re telling you about materials… without being a scientist or academic, practicing or in recovery.SourcesThe main source I used for this article was chapter 3 of Professor Chris Timusk’s doctoral thesis (pdf). Most of the rest came from Dr. Joseph Lstiburek’s presentations on building science fundamentals and hygrothermal analysis, Wikipedia, and Bill Rose’s book, Water in Buildings. Allison Bailes of Decatur, Georgia, is a speaker, writer, energy consultant, RESNET-certified trainer, and the author of the Energy Vanguard Blog. Check out his in-depth course, Mastering Building Science at Heatspring Learning Institute, and follow him on Twitter at @EnergyVanguard. RELATED ARTICLESVapor Retarders and Vapor BarriersWhen Sunshine Drives Moisture Into Walls The History of Peeling Paint, Insulation, and Vapor BarriersAre Dew-Point Calculations Really Necessary?Questions and Answers About Air Barriers Q&A: Is a capillary break between the footing and foundation wall really necessary?